精读建议如下（以TPO40-1 para. 3为例）：
The first steps toward change were taken by Solon in 594 B. C., when he broke the aristocracy's stranglehold（束缚） on elected offices// by establishing wealth rather than birth as the basis of office holding, abolishing（废除） the economic obligations（责任义务） of ordinary Athenians to the aristocracy, and allowing the assembly (of which all citizens were equal members) to overrule（推翻） the decisions of local courts（法庭） in certain cases. The strength of the Athenian aristocracy was further weakened during the rest of the century // by the rise of a type of government known as a tyranny, which is a form of interim（过渡的） rule by a popular strongman (not rule by a ruthless dictator（残暴的独裁者） as the modern use of the term（术语） suggests to us). The Peisistratids, as the succession（继承，继位） of tyrants were called (after the founder of the dynasty, Peisistratos), strengthened Athenian central administration at the expense of（以牺牲...为代价） the aristocracy // by appointing judges throughout the region, producing Athens’ first national coinage（货币）, and adding and embellishing（装饰，修饰） festivals that tended to focus attention on Athens rather than on local villages of the surrounding region. By the end of the century, the time was ripe（成熟的） for more change: the tyrants were driven out, and in 508 B C a new reformer, Cleisthenes, gave final form to the developments reducing aristocratic（贵族的） control already under way.