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剑桥雅思真题9阅读核心同义替换之C10-T4-R3

2018年01月16日 10:18 供稿单位:互联网  原创作者:sjzxhd   责编:石家庄管理员

C10-T4-R3


1.  题干:When discussing the theory developed by Louis Dollo, the writer 

says that it was modified by biologists in the early twentieth century.(C10

-T4-R3 T27)
原文:Early 20th-century biologists came to a similar conclusion, though they 

qualified it in terms of probability, and so the idea of irreversibility in 

evolution stuck and came to be known as ‘Dollo’s law’.
同义替换:Modified --- qualified it in terms of probability
 
2. 题干:The humpback whale caught off Vancouver Island is mentioned because 

of the
reason given for its unusual feature.(C10-T4-R3 T28)
原文:In 1919, for example, a humpback whale with a pair of leg-like 

appendages over a metre long, complete with a full set of limb bones, was 

caught off Vancouver Island in Canada.
同义替换:
Unusual feature --- a pair of leg-like appendages
 
3. 题干:What is said about ‘silent genes’?They could lead to the re-

emergence of
certain characteristics.(C10-T4-R3 T29)
原文:They reasoned that while some evolutionary changes involve the loss of 

genes and are therefore irreversible, others may be the result of genes being 

switched off. If these silent genes are somehow switched back on, they 

argued, long-lost traits could reappear.
同义替换:
Re-emergence --- reappear
Characteristics --- traits
 
4. 题干:The writer mentions the mole salamander becauseit suggests that Raff

’s theory is correct.(C10-T4-R3 T30)
原文:In other words, metamorphosis in mole salamanders is an atavism. The 

salamander example fits with Raff’s 10-million-year time frame.
同义替换:
Correct --- fit with
 
5. 题干:Which of the following does Wagner claim? Members of the Bachia 

lizard family have lost and regained certain features several times.(C10-T4

-R3 T31)
原文:According to his analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species 

re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors and, what is more, digit loss and gain 

has occurred on more than one occasion over tens of millions of years.
同义替换:
Lost and regained --- loss and gain
Several times --- more than one occasion
 
6. 题干:For a long time biologists rejected the possibility of evolution 

being reversible.(C10-T4-R3 T32)
原文:For the better part of a century, most biologists have been reluctant 

to use those words, mindful of a principle of evolution that say ‘evolution 

cannot run backwards’.
同义替换:
Rejected --- reluctant to use; mindful of
 
7. 题干:Opposing views on evolutionary throwbacks are represented byDollo’s 

findings and the convictions held by Lombroso.(C10-T4-R3 T33)
原文:While Lombroso was measuring criminals, a Belgian palaeontologist 

called Louis Dollo was studing fossil records and coming to the opposite 

conclusion.
同义替换:
Opposing views --- opposite conclusion
 
8. 题干:Examples of evolutionary throwbacks have led to exemplify the 

questions of how
certain long-lost traits could reappear.(C10-T4-R3 T34)
原文:Since then, so many other examples have been discovered that it no 

longer makes sense to say that evolution is as good as irreversible. And this 

poses a puzzle: how can characteristics that disappeared millions of years 

ago suddenly reappear?
同义替换:
Led to --- poses
Questions --- puzzle
Long-lost traits --- characteristics that disappeared millions of years ago
 
9. 题干:The shark and killer whale are mentioned to exemplify the occurrence 

of a
particular feature in different species.(C10-T4-R3 T35)
原文:One possibility is that these traits are lost and then simply reappear, 

in much the same way that similar structures can independently arise in 

unrelated species, such as the dorsal fins of sharks and killer whales.
同义替换:
A particular feature --- traits
Occurrence --- arise
In different species --- in unrelated species
 
10. 题干:One explanation for the findings of Wagner’s research is the 

continued
existence of certain genetic information.(C10-T4-R3 T36)
原文:Another more intriguing possibility is that the genetic information 

needed to make toes somehow survived for tens or perhaps hundreds of millions 

of years in the lizards and was reactivated.
同义替换:
One explanation --- another more intriguing possibility
Existence --- survived
 
11. 题干:Wagner was the first person to do research on South American 

lizards.(C10-T4-R3 T37)
原文:In a paper published last year, biologist Gunter Wagner of Yale 

University reported some work on the evolutionary history of a group of South 

American lizards called Bachia.
同义替换:
Do research on --- some work on
 
12. 题干:Wagner believes that Bachia lizards with toes had toeless 

ancestors.(C10-T4-R3 T38)
原文:According to his analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species 

re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors.
同义替换:
Lizards with toes --- the toed species
 
13. 题干:The temporary occurrence of long-lost traits in embryos is rare.
(C10-T4-R3 T39)
原文:Early embryos of many species develop ancestral features.
同义替换:
Rare --- many species
 
题干:Evolutionary throwbacks might be caused by developmental problems in 

the womb.(C10-T4-R3 T40)
原文: how can long-lost traits be reactivated over longer timescales? The 

answer may lie in the womb.
同义替换:Might be caused by---answer may lie in

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