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考研英语:如何在短时间内攻破阅读和翻译

作者: 2020-08-12 16:11 来源:石家庄编辑
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 首先讲讲长难句几个拆分信号及拆分方法:

  一、考研英语长难句拆分信号:

  1、标点符号:比如,2个逗号形成插入语,破折号表示解释说明,分号相当于“and”表示并列;

  2、连词:并列句的并列连词andorbutyetfor等,从句的从属连词whichthatwhenhowif;

  3、介词:介词引导介词短语,介词短语在句子中可充当定语、状语等修饰成分;

  4、不定式符号to:不定式符号to引导不定式短语,在句子中除了可以充当主语、宾语、表语、补语等主干成分外,还可做定语、状语等修饰成分;

  5、分词:分词包括现在分词和过去分词,在句子中可充当定语和状语修饰成分。

  下面我们就按照长难句拆分原则,依照这些拆分信号,结合考研英语阅读或翻译真题中的长难句进行实战演练一下吧!

  1{C}This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

  (1)句子拆分

  拆分点:从属连词、介词、标点符号

  This trend beganduring the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusionthat the specific demandsthat a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseenin detail.

  (2)句子结构

  ①找谓语动词(began, came, wants, cannot be foreseen);

  ②找连词(when, that, that)

  ③前面没有从属连词的动词即为主句的谓语动词

  ④确定主从句:

  主句:This trend began during the Second World War;

  从句:定语从句when several governments came to the conclusion修饰the Second World War,本从句嵌套着一个二级从句即同位语从句that the specific demands cannot generally be foreseen in detail修饰conclusion和一个三级从句that引导的定语从句that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment修饰demands

考研英语:如何在短时间内攻破阅读和翻译

  (3)解析

  during the Second World War介词短语做状语;

  when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail做定语修饰the Second World War;

  that the specific demands cannot generally be foreseen in detail同位语从句修饰conclusion;

  that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment修饰demands

  (4)本句的参考译文

  这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府向科研机构提出的要求通常是无法详尽预见的。

  其次,总结了几类长难句总结及介绍:

  一、大段的插入与或同位语

  对于有很长插入语的句子,其实是假老虎,本质上是不难理解的,只不过学生很难把主谓的关系联系起来,在阅读的时候我们要先把句子主干找出来,先不用管插入语的,先从整体上去理解,然后在其基础上再把插入语给充实进去。

  例:The Internet -- and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it -- is making access to scientific results a reality.

  分析:在浏览该句时,发现句子中出现了双破折号,其中间的内容and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it为插入语,浏览的时候先跳过。这样就可以看到把主干The Internet is making access to scientific results a reality理解了。然后再把具体插入语给填充进去就可以了。

  译文:网络和一些赞助机构正在施压,他们质疑为什么商业出版商通过限制人们的使用来从政府资助的科学研究中获利,这使得科研果的拥有权(不被盗用)变为现实

  二、语序调整或倒装

  在英语中通常会有倒装,主要分两种一种是语法要求必须要倒装,比如:以here , there ,then , now , next引出的倒装句;以表地点的介词短语引出的倒装句;以表示方位的副词引出的倒装句;否定词或具有否定意义的词及词组用在句首;only置于句首;as / though引导让步状语从句;在虚拟条件句中,连词if省略时,即将were , had , should等词提到句首。第二种是人为的倒装,为了平衡句子的结构或强调一些内容,会对句子进行句序调整。这样就加大了理解难度,同学们在做题时要注意按照正确的顺序进行翻译。

  例:Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.

  分析:原文中Odd though it sounds,此分句为倒装句,是作者为了强调“奇怪”这个现象,特意把odd移到前面,构成了表语结构的提前。在翻译的时候要按照正常的顺序进行调整。

  译文:尽管它听起来很奇怪,宇宙膨胀说是在基础粒子物理学中的一些公认的观点在科学上貌似可信的推论,并且很多天体物理学家在近十年中已经相信这种理论是真实的。

  三、修饰成分复杂

  句子本不难,但是修饰成分多且长。从句(定语、状语、同位语从句等)修饰;介词短语修饰;不定式修饰。经常是在同一个句子里既有从句又有介词短语,且都不止一个。对于这种长难句,同学们一定要注意抓住句子主干,先把主干给梳理清楚了,在此基础上再进行添枝加叶,这样才能知道这句话在说什么内容。

  例:As a discovery claim works its way through the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms an individuals discovery claim into the communitys credible discovery.

  分析:主语是the interaction and confrontation,谓语是transforms,伴随状语为As a discovery claim works its way through the community,定语为between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved,修饰主语the interaction and confrontation

  译文:随着发现声明通过科学界起作用,科学和技术涉及到的共有的互动和冲突把个人的发现声明转化为科学界可信的发现。

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